For nearly 15 years, David DeJoy, Mark Wilson and their colleagues in the Workplace Health Group in the College of Public Health have partnered with organizations of nearly all sizes and types—from Dow Chemical Co. to Home Depot Inc. and the Georgia Department of Community Health—on issues related to health and occupational safety. Their studies consistently have shown that employers can improve the health of their staff through programs that encourage healthy eating and physical activity. DeJoy and Wilson understand that employers have limited resources, so their research seeks practical, cost-effective solutions.
In a recent study that involved nearly 1,100 Union-Pacific Corp. employees, researchers found employees who were given counseling about healthy eating and participated in a program where they exercised for 150 minutes per week were able to maintain their weight. Their counterparts in the control group, on the other hand, saw their collective waistlines expand over the four-year study period.
DeJoy concedes that weight maintenance doesn’t sound like a huge win, but he points out that from a population health perspective, simply keeping people from gaining weight can dramatically improve outcomes while reducing health care costs.
“As people are gaining weight, they’re marching toward diabetes,” he said. “If you can get them to flatten that trajectory and maintain their weight, you’re lowering that risk.”
For more than a decade, Mary Ann Johnson and Joan Fischer, professors of foods and nutrition with the UGA College of Family and Consumer Sciences, have been exploring the factors that put older adults at risk for obesity and designing and testing interventions to help them lead healthier lives. Working with the Athens Community Council on Aging and senior centers across the state, Johnson found that it is never too late for older adults to improve their health. In one study, a four-month series of classes that included chair exercises and encouraged participants to record their daily steps with a pedometer helped participants increase their physical activity by 26 percent.
As a result of the class, the number of participants reporting good physical function jumped from 17 percent to 25 percent. Another series of classes focused on healthy eating resulted in a 21 percent increase in the number of participants who consumed at least seven servings of fruits and vegetables a day.
Johnson says, “Older people are willing to change; they just need some help, guidance and support.”
Phillip Tomporowski and Bryan McCullick, kinesiology faculty members in UGA’s College of Education, are introducing fun and effective exercise games into the Clarke County after-school program curriculum. Previous research by Tomporowski and colleagues at Georgia Health Sciences University demonstrated the cognitive benefits of vigorous exercise programs among overweight school-age children.
The researchers are helping overcome obstacles such as lack of teacher professional development, as well as inadequate facilities to help teachers motivate children to be physically active.
“With preparation,” says Tomporowski, “after-school teachers can motivate children to be physically active and engage in games that are of the intensity and duration to reap health benefits.”
The University of Georgia Alumni Association is partnering with UGA’s Obesity Initiative to present “Dawgs on the Move,” a program that promotes a healthy lifestyle.
“Dawgs on the Move” is designed to encourage UGA alumni and friends to participate in physical activities-from organized races to family bike rides. The program aims to raise awareness for UGA’s Obesity Initiative, which was launched in January 2012 to address Georgia’s multi-faceted obesity problem through treatment, prevention and research.
On March 16, the Alumni Association will host the Sixth Annual Dawg Trot 5K, a walk, jog or run through the university’s historic campus. Nearly 1,000 people participate every year. An official Run and See Georgia Grand Prix race, Dawg Trot times can be used to qualify for an earlier starting time at the Peachtree Road Race and other official races across the country. For more information on the Dawg Trot, see www.alumni.uga.edu/dawgtrot.
For more information about “Dawgs on the Move,” see the UGA Alumni Association website at www.alumni.uga.edu, or contact Margaret Sullivan, Atlanta programs coordinator, at firstname.lastname@example.org or 404/814-8818
In south Georgia’s Colquitt County, Marsha Davis of the College of Public Health and colleagues are sharing information on healthy eating and exercise. They are connecting to the community through a weekly newsletter for parents, family fun nights that are held in partnership with the local YMCA, and promotions of community-wide initiatives such as Farmer’s Markets and walking trails. The researchers use evidence-based practices from some of the major child physical activity and nutrition programs, tailored to the community and delivered in engaging, interactive ways.
“Because obesity is a complex issue, we need to work with, rather than in, the community,” said Davis.
The program in Colquitt County is conducted through the university’s Archway Partnership, which brings university expertise to community identified needs. Pediatricians there have reported seeing elementary school students with high blood pressure, and health officials have seen children with type II diabetes—a disease that was called adult-onset until rising rates of obesity necessitated a name change.
Critics frequently blame processed foods for today’s obesity epidemic. But a writer in The Atlantic offers up a contrary view. In the cover story, “How Junk Food Can End Obesity,” David Freedman argues that the “wholesome-food movement” is unlikely to help most obese Americans, and that Big Food — the food industry — may be the solution. One thing we need, he says, is solid research into less obesogenic, high-mass-appeal foods.
Through its growing sway over health-conscious consumers and policy makers, the wholesome-food movement is impeding the progress of the one segment of the food world that is actually positioned to take effective, near-term steps to reverse the obesity trend: the processed-food industry. Popular food producers, fast-food chains among them, are already applying various tricks and technologies to create less caloric and more satiating versions of their junky fare that nonetheless retain much of the appeal of the originals, and could be induced to go much further. In fact, these roundly demonized companies could do far more for the public’s health in five years than the wholesome-food movement is likely to accomplish in the next 50. But will the wholesome-food advocates let them?
He encourages the advocates of “wholesome foods,” which often are expensive, and their allies, to recognize that such foods are not readily available to many who need them most, and “to start getting behind realistic solutions to the obesity crisis.”
Public schools are “the one place where kids could be guaranteed to get a physical education and some physical activity, says UGA kinesiologist Bryan McCullick. “If you don’t know how to be physically active, you’re not going to go out and be physically active,” he told WSB TV in Atlanta.
Is obesity a disease, as the AMA recently decided? A condition? Or a reflection of an individual’s self control? More evidence that genetics contributes to obesity was revealed this week in a study published this week in the journal Science.
Scientists discovered a gene that acts in the brain to control weight, normally by signaling another gene already known to be involved in controlling appetite. They hypothesized that deleting the helper gene would increase appetite — and in their mouse studies, it did.
“The history of obesity for many many years has been one of blaming people for lack of self control,” said Dr. Joseph Majzoub, chief of endocrinology at Boston Children’s Hospital and lead author of the new paper. “If some of it is due to a slow metabolism, that would completely change the perspectives of parents and patients. It really would change the way we think of the disease.”
This week, the American Medical Association labeled obesity a disease, prompting statements from major health organizations, as well as stories and editorials from media.
In a press release, The Obesity Society noted, “The passage of a new American Medical Association policy classifying obesity as a disease reinforces the science behind obesity prevention and treatment.” The LA Times noted, “The AMA’s decision essentially makes diagnosis and treatment of obesity a physician’s professional obligation,” in part because such treatment will now be reimbursable by insurance companies. Just as important, it continued, the AMA’s opinion can influence policy makers who are in a position to do more to support interventions, research, and programs to prevent and treat obesity.
However, the decision was not without controversy. The AMA’s own Council on Science and Public Health of the American Medical Association issued a report expressing concern that obesity was typically diagnosed using body mass index (BMI), a measure that is imprecise and not always associated with poor health outcomes.
UGA nutrition and health specialist Connie Crawley says the AMA decision puts obesity in the same light as other long-term diseases, such as diabetes. “Diabetes is a long-term condition, just like obesity is, and it is basically is never cured,” Crawley said. “It’s just managed.” She also noted, “Calling obesity a disease also takes some of the stigma away that it is just a personal flaw in one’s character that causes it—just like drug addition or alcoholism are diseases.”
Facebook affects our obesity, right? Interesting research here posted in PLoS One about geographic research based on social media. Check out a bit below, reported on Boston.com:
Scientists from Boston Children’s Hospital in the U.S. found that people’s online interests within geographic areas could help public health researchers track and map obesity rates, and design geotargeted online interventions to reduce the risks. For example, areas where Facebook users “liked” pages related to television were more likely to have high rates of obesity compared to areas whose residents “liked” activity-related pages.
To reach their findings, the research team obtained aggregated Facebook user interest data—what users post to their timeline, “like” and share with others on Facebook—from users within the U.S. and just within New York City. Using two prior telephone-based health surveys involving thousands of people, they then compared percentages of users interested in healthy activities or television. Both surveys record geotagged data on body mass index, which researchers consider a reliable measure of obesity.
“The data show that in places where Facebook users have more activity-related interests, there is a lower prevalence of obesity and overweight,” said co-researcher Dr. Rumi Chunara. “They reveal how social media data can augment public health surveillance by giving public health researchers access to population-level information that they can’t otherwise get.”
Access the full article on the PLoS One site here.